Background: Growing rates of HIV and high rates of injection drug use in Kazakhstan call for examining access to testing and treatment among people who inject drugs and their intimate partners.
Objectives: We examine how access to health and drug treatment services as well as risk environment factors are associated with ever being tested for HIV and ever receiving any general HIV medical care among 728 male and female intimate partners, where at least one partner injects drugs. Methods: Multivariate random effects logistic regression with random effects for couple were conducted to examine associations between access to health and drug treatment services, risk environment factors, and HIV testing and HIV medical care outcomes.
Results: Analyses indicate that accessing needle exchange services and having a regular physician were associated with access to both HIV testing and HIV medical care. Receiving drug treatment was associated with accessing HIV testing but not HIV medical care. Being arrested and charged with a criminal offense was also associated with accessing HIV testing but not HIV medical care.
Conclusions/Importance: Study findings highlight the need for increased scale-up of HIV testing efforts, as well as integrated HIV treatment and care in Kazakhstan.